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Wrath Of Fatimah (a.s)

Wrath Of Fatimah (a.s)
Fatimah (a.s) passed away while being angry with Abu Bakr because he had deprived her of the inheritance left for her by her father, the Prophet (a.s). Relying on the authority of 'A'ishah, al­Bukhari quotes the latter as saying, "... Fatimah (a.s) daughter of the Messenger of Allah (a.s) was to receive the inheritance left for


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her from the fay' [property gained as a peace offering from a hostile party] which Allah had bestowed upon His Messenger (a.s). Bakr said to her, 'The Messenger of Allah (a.s) had said, 'We [prophets] leave no inheritance; what we leave behind is charity;' therefore, Fatimah (a.s) daughter of the Messenger of Allah (a.s) became angry. She dissociated herself from Abb. Bakr until she died. She lived for only six months after the death of the Messenger

of Allah (a.s)." 'ishah adds saying, "And Fatimah (a.s) demanded

that Abu Bakr give her the share to which she was entitled of the inheritance of the Messenger of Allah (a.s) from Khaybar, namely Fadak, and the Madinah charity, but Abb. Bakr refused saying, 'I shall not leave out anything which the Messenger of Allah (a.s)

used to do.'" 1 Her anger with Abu Bakr was so great that it

prompted her to go as far as leaving a will with 'Ali (a.s) that Abu Bakr should not perform the funeral prayers for her after her demise, nor to even walk behind her coffin. Imam 'Ali (a.s) buried her pure body secretly at night as al-Bukhari states in his Sahih, relying on 'A'ishah who said, "... Abu Bakr refused that anything should be paid to Fatimah (a.s). Fatimah (a.s), therefore, was extremely angry with him, so much so that she dissociated herself from him and never spoke to him until she died. She lived after the demise of the Prophet (a.s) for six months. When she died, her husband buried her at night. Abu Bakr never called the adhän [to announce her death], nor did he perform the funeral prayers for her. 2

The land of Fadak which Fatimah (a.s) demanded is a village in Hijaz which used to be inhabited by some Jews. When the Messenger of Allah (a.s) commenced the conquest of Khayber, Allah cast fear in the hearts of those Jews; therefore, they reconciled with the Messenger of Allah (a.s) in exchange for Fadak. Thus, Fadak became the property of the Messenger of Allah (a.s) because
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1 Al-Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 4, p. 208, in the book of khums in a chapter about obligations.
2 Ibid., Vol. 5, p. 382, in the book about military campaigns in a chapter about the invasion of Khayber.


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neither cavalry nor infantry was ever involved in its conquest. Then he gave it to his daughter Fatimah (a.s) in addition to what the Messenger of Allah (a.s) had owned out of the levy of the khums from Khayber and his own charities. All of these used to be the personal property of the Messenger of Allah; nobody else had any right in it besides him.

Fatimah (a.s), then, according to Abu Bakr's view, was demanding to get what was not hers. She, according to this view, had to be doing either one of two things without any third possibility:

First : She was ignorant and did not know the rulings applicable to the inheritance of the Messenger of Allah (a.s) (while Abu Bakr knew), or

Second : She was a liar who coveted to take what did not belong to her.

The fact is that both are impossible to attribute to al-Zahra' (a.s) for whose anger Allah used to become angry, the Head of the Believing Women and of the people of Paradise that she was, the lady who was purified by Allah Almighty from any sin or impurity as has already been stated above. According to what is recorded by al­Bukhari in his Sahih, the Messenger of Allah (a.s) said,

"O Fatimah! Are you not pleased with being the Head of the believing women or the Head of the women of this nation?!" 1

"Fatimah (a.s) is part of me; whoever makes her angry makes me angry" 2

"Fatimah (a.s) is the Head of the women of Paradise." 3

Even if we submit that Fatimah (a.s) was like any other woman and
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1 Al-Bukhari,Sahih, Vol. 8, p. 202, in the book about seeking permission to enter in a chapter about one who addressed the people.
2 Ibid., Vol. 5, p. 75, in the book about the virtues of the sahabah in a chapter about the merits of Fatimah, Allah be pleased with her.
3 Ibid., Vol. 5, p. 74.


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did not have all such distinctions, as the narratives above indicate, her being the daughter of the teacher of humanity and the wife of the Commander of the Faithful (Amir al-Mu'minin) 'Ali (a.s), for whom they testified that he was the most judicious of all, the most knowledgeable, it negates from her any possibility of being ignorant. This is so because had Fatimah (a.s) been demanding what did not belong to her, and that the Messenger of Allah (a.s) was not to leave any inheritance, according to the view of Abu Bakr, either her father (a.s) or her husband (a.s) was supposed to inform her, especially since her anger with Abu Bakr lasted for six months. This was the entire period which Fatimah (a.s) lived after the departure of the Chosen One (a.s) from this world.

But far it is for Fatimah (a.s) to be as such. We seek refuge with Allah against thinking like that of her. When she came to know that Abu Bakr deprived her of her right of ownership of Fadak and the property which Allah had bestowed upon His Prophet (a.s) in Medinah, in addition to the khums of Khayber, she (a.s) went to meet him, and he was among a crowd of the Muhajirun and the Ansar. She delivered a speech which caused the people to burst in tears, a speech from which we would like to quote the following:

... while you claim that we have neither inheritance nor any share; do you wish to implement the judgment of the days of jäligiyya12? Whose judgment is better than that of Allah for people who have conviction? 0 folks of Islam! Does the Book of Allah say that you can get your inheritance from your fathers while I have no inheritance at all? You will truly then bring about falsehood.

Then she recited the verse saying,

"Muhammed is no more than a Prophet: Many prophets passed away before him. If he died or were killed, would you then turn back on your heels? If any did turn back on his heels, he would not harm Allah in the least, but Allah (on the other hand) will swiftly reward those who (serve Him) with gratitude" (Qur'an, 3:144)


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Then she went on to say,

"O people of Qaylä! Should I thus complain about the injustice of being deprived of inheritance from my father while you see and hear me? ...etc," 1

Moreover, the meaning of the statement "We [prophets] leave no inheritance" which the Messenger of Allah (a.s) made does not convey the inapplicability of the laws of inheritance to prophets according to the ijtihad of Abu Bakr. The Holy Qur'an states the following:

"And Solomon was David's heir" (Qur'an, 27:16).

Zakariyya [Zachariah] pleaded to the Almighty to grant him someone who would be his heir, so Allah granted him Yahya [John the Baptist]:

"... '(one who) will (truly) inherit me, and represent the posterity of Jacob, and make him, 0 Lord, one with whom You are well pleased!' (His prayer was answered:) '0 Zakariyya! We give you glad tidings of a son: His name shall be Yahya (John): We have never conferred distinction on any by that name before— (Qur'an, 19:6-7).

Hence, the meaning of "... inherit me" in the previous verse does not convey the sense of inheriting his [Zakariyya's] status as a prophet, for prophethood is not hereditary. Thus, the meaning of "We [prophets] leave no inheritance" in the statement of the Prophet (a.s) means that prophets do not hoard gold and silver so it may be their legacy after them as do kings and those who seek the life of this world.

With Abu Bakr thus depriving Fatimah (a.s) of inheriting the Prophet (a.s) gave the opportunity to some people to claim that this was the real reason why 'All. (a.s) was reluctant to swear fealty to Abu Bakr, not because he (a.s) saw himself as the legitimate claimant to the post of caliph. Had the matter been as such, how do
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1 Ibn a1-Athir,Aland! fi Sharli Tiwöl 'ib, p (printed at Al­Madani press).


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you explain the reluctance of a large number of the sahabah to swear fealty to Abu Bakr while granting their support to 'Ali (a.s)? And how do you explain this statement of 'A'ishah: "'Ali (a.s) sent a message to Abu Bakr saying, 'You may come to visit us, provided nobody accompanies you,' out of his concern that 'Umar might be present"? "Umar ibn al-Khattab had nothing to do with the issue of contention regarding the inheritance of the Prophet (a.s), whereas he played a decisive role in ending the dispute at the Saqifah in Abu Bakr's favor. Moreover; the issue of the inheritance is not considered a stumbling block or a justification under any condition for the refusal of 'Ali (a.s) and Fatimah (a.s) to swear fealty to Abu Bakr or even for their reluctance to do so.

Did Fatimah (a.s) Die the Death of Jahiliyyah?
Relying on the authority of [' Abdullah] ibn 'Abbas, al-Bukhari has quoted the latter saying that the Messenger of Allah (a.s) said,

"One who detests something which his amir does must be patient, for anyone who deviates the distance of a span from authority dies the death of the days of ignorance jahiliyyah." 1

And in his Sahih, Muslim cites the Messenger of Allah (a.s) saying,

"One who dies without the responsibility of a fealty dies the days of jahiliyyah." 2

And in Ahmed's Musnad, the Messenger of Allah (a.s) is quoted as having said,

"Whoever dies without an Imam dies the death of jahiliyyah." 3

These three traditions prove decisively that anyone who dies
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1 Al-Bukhari, Vol. 9, p. 145, in the book of dissensions in a chapter titled "After me, you shall witness things which you shall abhor."
2 Muslim, Sahih, in the book of imarah in a chapter about the necessity of supporting what the majority of Muslims support, Vol. 4, p. 517 (published by Dar al-Sha'b press].
3 Ahmed,Musnad, Vol. 3, p. 446.without swearing fealty to an amiror an Imam dies the death of jahiliyyah. There is no doubt that what is meant here is the Imam obedience to whom is obligatory according to the divine Shari' ah and nobody else.


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Fatimah al-Zahra' (a.s) passed away without swearing fealty to Abu Bakr. Furthermore, she died while being angry with him, leaving a will that he should not perform the funeral prayers for her nor even walk behind her coffin according to what al-Bukhari states in his Sahih, citing 'A'ishah relating about how Abu Bakr had deprived Fatimah (a.s) of her inheritance from the Messenger of Allah (a.s):

"Fatimah (a.s), therefore, was extremely angry with him, so much so that she dissociated herself from him and never spoke to him until she died. She lived after the demise of the Prophet (a.s) for six months. When she died, her husband buried her at night. Abu Bakr never called the adhan [to announce her death], nor did he perform the funeral prayers for her." 1

How, then, can anyone say that al-Zahra' (a.s) did not follow the Prophetic instructions in the previous traditions? Rather, she demonstrated her patience about what she saw and hated of caliph Abu Bakr's action. She did not obey him. She objected to his caliphate. She was angry with him. And she left a will that he should not perform the funeral prayers for her, nor should he even walk in her funeral procession, something which pointed to the fact that not only did she distance herself from the authority of Abu Bakr for one span but rather many miles! How can one say, therefore, that Fatimah al-Zahra' (a.s) died the death of jahlliyyah? But Fatimah (a.s), according to the consensus of all Islamic sects, was the Head of believing women, the Head of the women of Paradise, as al-Bukhari confirmed in his Sahih, citing the Prophet (a.s) saying, "0 Fatimah! Are you not pleased with being the Head
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1 Al-Bukhari, Vol. 5, p. 382, in the book of military campaigns in a chapter about the invasion of Khayber.


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of the believing women or the Head of the women of this nation?!" 1 Moreover, the Messenger of Allah (a.s) used to be angry whenever she was angry. This undoubtedly means that Allah Almighty would become angry whenever she was angry according to this tradition:

"The Prophet (a.s) said, Fatimah is part of me. Whoever angers her angers me (too)'." 2

The imam (or amir) obedience to whom is obligatory, and one who does not swear the oath of allegiance to him dies the death of jahiliyyah, is surely neither Abu Bakr, nor Mu'awiyah the blood-shedder, nor their likes.

'UMAR'S CALIPHATE
When Abu Bakr became sick, he called 'Uthman ibn 'Affan to his presence and said to him, "Write the following: In the Name of Allah, the most Gracious, the most Merciful. This is a covenant from Abu. Bakr son of Abu. Quhafah to the Muslims." It was then that he became unconscious. 'Uthman, therefore, went on to write the following: "I leave as my successor over you 'Umar ibn al­Khattab, and I do not hide from you anything good." Then Abu Bakr regained his consciousness, so 'Uthman said to him, "I see that you feared lest the Muslims would dispute if you passed away during your unconsciousness; is that so?" Abu Bakr answered in the affirmative, whereupon 'Uthman said, "May Allah reward you with goodness on behalf of Islam and Muslims." The writing was kept where it had been.3

It is also narrated that 'Umar was holding in his hand the sheet on which Abu Bakr named him as his successor on the day of the Saqifah when he scared people and thus took from them the oath of allegiance for Abu Bakr through his coercion as has already been
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1 Al-Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 5, p. 74, in a volume about the virtues of the sahabah in a chapter about the virtues of Fatimah, Allah be pleased with her.
2 Ibid., Vol. 5, p. 75, in a volume about the virtues of the sahabah in a chapter about the virtues of Fatimah, Allah be pleased with her.
3 Al-Tabari, Tarikh. Ibn 'Asakir, Tarikh Dimashq.


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proven above, taking advantage of the split in the ranks of the Ansar and in the presence of those who held in their hands the legitimate right to be the caliphs and who were busy preparing for the funeral of the Messenger of Allah (a.s). Abu Bakr also played the same role by installing 'Umar as the caliph after him. It cost him nothing but a little ink. Despite the extreme pain of Abu Bakr's ailment during the writing of that will, even during his unconsciousness at the time, nobody at all said that Abu Bakr was hallucinating regarding what was written. Contrariwise, Caliph 'Umar and those who supported him did not hesitate to accuse the Prophet (a.s) with such a painful word ["yahjur, hallucinating"] when the Prophet (a.s) asked them to get him some writing material so that a statement would be written for them after the writing of which they would never stray.

Abu Bakr claimed that the reason why he named 'Umar as the caliph after him was his fear lest dissension should take place after his death. Thus did the Sunnis accept his excuse after he had violated the principle of shura (mutual consultation) which they claim should be the principle according to which the Muslims should elect their caliph. You will see later how they also accepted the caliphate of Mu'awiyah and his son Yazid after his death although these ascended to power through intimidation and the force of the sword, killing many Muslims in the process, especially the descendants of the pure 'itrah of the Ahl al-Bayt (a.s).

But the question which we wished to put forth here is this: "Why did the Sunnis refuse the notion that the Prophet (a.s) did, indeed, name the caliph who was to succeed him as they did accept it from Abu Bakr especially since the dispute about the caliphate at the time of the death of the Prophet (a.s) was much greater than those when Abu Bakr died, in addition to the clear texts about the importance of referring to the Ahl al-Bayt (a.s) whenever the Muslims disputed with each other after the departure of the Chosen One (a.s)? And the caliphate of 'Ali (a.s)?!"


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Uthman's Caliphate
When caliph 'Urnar was stabbed, he was told that his successor had already been named, so he said, "Had Abu 'Ubaydah ibn al-Jarrah been alive, I would have named him as my successor. And had Salim, slave of Abu Huthayfah, been alive, I would have named him as my successor." Then he said to them, "Some men say that the swearing of fealty to Abu Bakr was a slip from the evil of which Allah protected us, and that the fealty to 'Umar lacked consultation, and the issue after me is to be resolved through shura." 1 Said he, "I have determined your issue to be resolved by a number of early Muhajirun" whom he named saying, "Call to me 'Ali (a.s), 'Uthman, Talhah, al-Zubayr, 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf and Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas. If four persons agree [to choose the same person], the remaining two must follow the view of the [first] four. And if the views are split between three and three, you should follow the view of 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf; therefore, listen [to him] and obey ..." 2

From the above narrative it becomes obvious that caliph 'Urnar arranged for the candidate to be named by 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf. This is a third portrait of the type of shura which they [Sunnis] advocate ... Caliph 'Umar ordered 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf to require a condition in the candidate for whom fealty would be sworn. This condition is that he should act upon the line of both senior sahabis (Abu Bakr and 'Umar) in addition to acting upon the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Prophet (a.s). As was expected, the six persons split into two parties: three persons and two candidates. The first three were: 'Ali (a.s), Talhah and al­Zubayr, and their candidate was 'All (a.s). As for the three in the other party, they were: Sa'd, 'Uthman and 'Abd al-Rahman, and their candidate was 'Uthman. Imam 'Ali (a.s) rejected the condition of acting upon the line of both senior sahabis saying, "I shall follow the Book of Allah (a.s) and the Sunnah of His Prophet (a.s) and my own ijtihad," 3 whereas 'Uthman accepted the condition, becoming a
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1 Al-Bukhari, Sahih
2 Al-Bukhari, Sahih
3 Khalid Muhammed Khalid Khulafa p. 272, 8th edition.


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caliph accordingly.

AI-Bukhari records a portion of this incident in his own He cites al-Hasir ibn Makhramah saying, "'Abd al-Rahman [ibn Awf] knocked at my door after a good portion of the night had already lapsed until I woke up. He said, 'I see that you are asleep. By Allah, my eyes have not tasted much sleep. Come, call al-Zubayr and Sa'd to my presence.' I told them to meet him, so he consulted with

them. Then he called upon me and said, 'Call (a.s) to my presence.' I invited him ['Ali (a.s)] to meet with him. He talked privately with him until the night's color started to fade. Then 'Ali (a.s) left him optimistically. Then he said to me, 'Call 'Uthman to my presence.' I did. He talked privately with him until the call of the muezzin (caller to prayer) to the fajr (daybreak) prayers separated them from each other. Having led the people for the fajr prayer, and once the same individuals assembled near the pulpit [of the Prophet (a.s)], he called to his presence those of the Muhajirun and the Ansar who were present and also sent messages for the commanders of the troops to meet there, and these were all loyal to 'Umar. Once they all gathered together, 'Abd al-Rahman recited both testimonies [that "There is god except Allah and Muhammed

(a.s) is the Messenger of 'Abd al-Rahman said, '0 'Ali! I have looked into the affairs of the people and found no peer among them for 'Uthman; so, do not put your own safety to jeopardy.' To 'Uthman he said, 'I swear allegiance to you according to the Sunnah of Allah (a.s) and His Messenger and [the line] of both caliphs [Abu Bakr and 'Umar] after him.' Thus did 'Abd al-Rahman swear the oath of allegiance to him [to 'Uthman], and so did the people." 1

Thus it becomes obvious that when caliph ‘Umar preconditioned for the one to whom people must swear the oath of allegiance to act upon the way of both senior sahabis, in addition to acting upon the Book of Allah (a.s) and the Sunnah of His Prophet (a.s), he had already determined the caliphate for 'Uthman right then because he
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1 Al-Bukhari, Sahih,Vol. 9, p. 239, in the book of ahkam in a chapter about how an imam receives the oath of fealty from the people.


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knew the attitude of Imam (a.s) vis-a-vis this condition in addition to his knowledge that Talhah and al-Zubayr would both side with 'Ali (a.s) because he had already noticed their stand, which was supportive of 'Ali (a.s), on the day of the Saqifah. Add to all the above the fact that 'Umar had already granted the right to make a preference in favor of 'Abd al-Rahman ibn 'Awf, thus it becomes quite clear to you what sort of shura they claim ...


Murder of Caliph Uthman
A great deal was said about how 'Uthman was assassinated. Many statements and narratives clashed with each other in this regard especially with reference to the group which used to urge others to kill him, the reasons which prompted them to do so and such events reaching their climax with his murder. The most rational explanations are embedded in the practices on the government level, the appointment of provincial rulers who were relatives of 'Uthman and the money these used to be given from the State's treasury. All this prompted critics and rebels to turn against 'Uthman. The famous writer, Khalid Muhammed Khalid, says, "We do not doubt that 'Uthman, too, used to realize that most of those who welcomed his appointment for the caliphate, rather than 'Ali, Allah glorify his countenance, wanted to be freed from life's strictness and stringency from which people suffered for a long period of time and which could have added to their burdens had 'Ali (a.s) received the matters in his own hands. Through his strict system, exact justice, asceticism and piety, he (a.s) represented an extension of the strictness, justice, stringency and piety of 'Umar ..." 1

The hands of the relatives of caliph 'Uthman from among Bann Umayyah played havoc with the State treasury to the extent that some people think that the Umayyad government started ruling since choosing 'Uthman as the caliph and swearing the oath of allegiance to him. Here is Abu Sufyan supports this view when he says the following to caliph 'Littman after the latter had received
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1 Khalid Muhammed Khalid Khulafa eral-Rasul, p. 276, 8'h edition.


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the oath of allegiance: "0 Bann Umayyah! Receive it as a ball is received, for by the one by whom Abu Sufyan swears, I remain optimistic that you (too) will receive it, and it shall be received by your children by way of inheritance." 1 According to another narrative of the same statement, he said, "Receive it as a ball is received, for there is neither Paradise nor Hell ..." 2

Among those who opposed caliph 'Uthman were some of the best sahabah. The most famous of these are: Abu Tharr, may Allah be pleased with him, 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud and 'Ammar ibn Yasir. The said caliph took a very fanatical stand against them, punishing them severely. As for Abu Tharr, he met his death in the [desert of] al-Rabathah as his punishment for opposing [the appointment of] Mu'awiyah as the provincial governor [then self-declared absolute ruler] of Syria. Abu Tharr resented how Mu'awiyah was hoarding gold and squandering money at the expense of the Muslims' wealth. Zayd ibn Wahbah has said, "I passed by al-Rabathah and saw Abu Tharr, may Allah be pleased with him, so I said to him, 'What brought you [to such a pathetic condition of banishment] here?' He said, 'I was in Syria and had a dispute with Mu'awiyah regarding the verse saying, And there are those who hoard up gold and silver and do not spend in the way of Allah (Qur'an, 9:34). Mu'awiyah said that it was revealed about the People of the Book (Ahl al‑ Kitab). I said that it was revealed about us and about them; therefore, this was the source of disagreement between him and myself. He wrote 'Ullman complaining about me. 'Uthman wrote me ordering me to go to Medinah. I went there. Many people came to see me as if they never saw me before, so I mentioned this to 'Uthman. He said to me, If you wish, you may stay away nearby.' This caused my present condition. Had they assigned an Ethiopian as an amir, I would have listened to him and obeyed.'" 3

As regarding 'Abdullah ibn Mas'ud, the man in charge of Kufah's
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1 Al-Tabari, Tarikh. Ibn al-Athir, Al-Isträh.
2 Ibn al-Athir. Al-Tabari, Tarikh.
3 Al-Bukhari, a hi , Vol. 2, p. 278, in the Book of Zakat.

 


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bayt al-mal (public treasury), his ribs were broken as a result of being beaten by 'Uthman's slave as his punishment because of his objection to the conduct of al-Walid ibn Mu'it, caliph 'Uthman's brother by his mother and his wali over KUfah following the deposition of Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas. This son of Abu Mu'it took money from the Muslims' bayt al-mal and never returned it.1

As for 'Ammar ibn Yasir, he became sick with hernia as a result of being severely beaten by 'Uthman's slave as his punishment for having performed the funeral prayers for Ibn Mas'ud without informing the caliph of it. Actually, 'Ammar did so in honor of the will of Ibn Mas'ud so that the caliph might not perform the said prayers service for him instead. 2

Others are many among those who objected to the extravagance of the caliph's relatives from among Bann Umayyah of the common wealth of the State. Marwan ibn al-Hakam, for example, took a fifth of the khiraj tax of Africa. Refer to more stories about caliph 'Uthman in the book titled Khilafah wa Mulakiyyah (caliphate and monarchy) by 'Allamah Mawdudi.

A profound effect resulted from the anger of the Mother of the Faithful (Umm 'A'ishah and her objection to caliph 'Uthman, even to her instigation that he should be killed such as when she said, "Kill Na'thal 3 for he has committed apostasy." 4 She did so after accusing him of altering the Sunnah of the Prophet (a.s). This aggravated the revolution against him. Many citizens of Medinah, as well as people who came from Egypt, Syria and Kilfah, gathered and collectively killed him.
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1 Al Balathiri, Ansab al-Ashraf Al-Wäqidi.Tarikh.
2 lbn Sharh Nahjul-Baleighah.
3 She thus likened 'Uthman ibn 'Affän, the caliph, to a Jew man named Na'thal, known of his viciousness, who lived in al-Madinah.
4 Al-Tabari, Tarikh, Vol. 4, p. 277 (Cairo edition of 1357 A.H.). Ibn al-Athir, Al­Niheiyah.

 

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