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Caliphate Of Imam Ali (A.S)


Caliphate Of Imam Ali (A.S)
After 'Uthman had been killed, people went in drones to Imam 'Ali (a.s) seeking to swear the oath of allegiance to him (as the caliph). They said to him, "This man ['Uthman] has been killed, and people have to have an Imam. Nowadays, we find none worthy of such an undertaking besides you." The swearing of allegiance was completed.

Imam 'Ali (a.s) wanted to implement justice among the people, establishing equity between those who were weak and those who were mighty. He wanted to establish the rulings which Allah revealed in His Book. Some of them objected. They enticed dissension and gathered troops, publicly announcing their rebellion and mutiny against him. This led to many battles the most significant of which were those of the Camel and of Siffin.

Battle of al-Jamal; Mother of the Believers Goes Out to Fight 'Ali (a.s)
When Mother of the Believers 'A'ishah came to know that 'Uthman had been killed and that people swore the oath of allegiance to 'Ali (a.s), she said to 'Ubaydullah ibn Kilab, who informed her of it, "By Allah! I wish this [heavens] had crashed with this [earth] if, indeed, the matter has been concluded to the advantage of your friend. Woe unto you! Look into what you are saying!" 'Ubaydullah said to her, "It is just as I have told you, 0 Mother of the Faithful!" She pronounced statements expressing her frustration, whereupon he said to her, " Why should it concern you [so much], 0 Mother of the Faithful?! By Allah, I know nobody worthier of it [caliphate] than him [than 'Ali (a.s)]; so, why do you hate for him to be the caliph?" The Mother of the Faithful cried out, "Take me back! Take me back!" She returned to Madinah saying, "'Uthman, by Allah, was killed unjustly. By Allah! I shall seek revenge for the shedding of his blood!" 'Ubaydullah said to her, "Why?! By Allah, the first person to legitimize the shedding of his blood is your own self! You used to say, 'Kill Na'thal for he has committed apostasy'." She said, "They got him to regret, then they killed him. I have said what I said, and so have they, and my last statement is better than my


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first." She went to Mecca and alighted at the Mosque's door where many people gathered around her. She said to them, "O people! 'Uthman has been unjustly killed. By Allah! I shall seek revenge for his murder." 1
The anger of Mother of the Faithful 'A'ishah agreed with the anger of Talhah and al-Zubayr after Imam 'Ali (a.s) had deposed them from their posts as the walis of Yemen and Bahrain respectively; therefore, they both reneged from their oath of allegiance to Imam 'Ali (a.s) and went to Mecca to urge the same Mother of the Faithful to fight 'Ali (a.s). They went out accompanied by a huge army under the military command of the Mother of the Faithful in the direction of Basra where a crushing war, known as the Battle of the Camel (barb al-jamal), took place. Victory was on the side of the army led by Imam 'Ali (a.s), and in it both Talbah and al­Zubayr were killed as well as thirteen thousand Muslims. All these were the victims of the call ushered by the Mother of the Faithful to avenge the killing of 'Uthman. She claimed that the killers had found their way to the Imam's army. No matter what, was she not supposed to let such issues be decided by wali al-amr especially since Allah Almighty had ordered her to "... stay in your houses" (Qur'an, 33:33)?

And why should she have anything to do with that since 'Uthman is a man from Bann Umayyah while she is from [the tribe of] Taym except when there is another reason for her thus marching out?! Although the reality of this incident answers this question clearly, add to it the prophecy of the Messenger of Allah (a.s) about this dissension and his making a reference to those behind it. For example, 'Abdullah [ibn 'Abbas] has said, "The Prophet (a.s) stood up to deliver a sermon. He pointed in the direction of the residence of 'A'ishah and said, 'Dissension is right there,' repeating his statement three times. He went on to say, 'It is from there that Satan's horn shall come out.'" 2 'Ammar ibn Yasir considered
1 Al-Bukhari, Sala!), Vol. 5, p. 172. Ibn al-Athir. Ibn Sa'd.
2 Al-BukhRri, Vol. 4, p. 217, in the Book of Khums in a chapter about


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obedience to 'A'ishah in such a deed as being at the expense of obedience to Allah, the most Great, the most Exalted One. Ibn Ziyad al-Asadi has said, "... so I heard 'Ammar saying, 'A'ishah marched out to Basra. By Allah! She is the wife of your Prophet (a.s) in the life of this world and in the Hereafter, but Allah, the most Praised, the most Exalted One, has tested you in order to see whether you obey Him or you obey her.'" 1

Long before this incident, 'A'ishah was very well known of being extremely spiteful of 'Ali (a.s). She could not even bear hearing his name mentioned. 'Abdullah ibn 'Utbah is quoted as having said, "'A'ishah said, 'When heaviness covered the Prophet (a.s) and his pain intensified, he sought permission of his wives to be treated at my chamber, and they granted him permission. The Prophet (a.s) went out assisted by two men, dragging his feet on the ground. He was between 'Abbas and another man.'" 'Ubaydullah went on to say, "I related this to [' Abdullah] ibn 'Abbas who asked me, 'Do you know who the other man was?' I said, 'No.' He said, 'That was 'All.'" 2 Perhaps what 'A'ishah had heard was what 'Ali (a.s) said to the Messenger of Allah (a.s) in her regard in the incident wherein she was charged. This was the reason for such spite and hatred. 'Ubaydullah ibn Mas'tid has said, "... As for 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s), he said, '0 Messenger of Allah! Allah has not placed any pressure on you, and women besides her are numerous, indeed.'" 3

The "prince of poets (amir al-shu'aral,"Ahmed Shawqi, has described 'A'ishah's spite [towards 'Ali (a.s)] in poetic verses wherein he addresses Imam 'Ali (a.s) as follows: "0 mountain! The weight that you carry is rejected by other mountains; what load did the Owner of the Camel ['A'ishah] throw on you? Was it the effect

what went on in the houses of the Prophet's wives.
1 Al-Bukhari, Sahih,Vol. 9, p. 171, in the Book of Dissensions in a chapter about a dissension that would move like high sea waves.
2 Ibid., Vol. 1, p. 133, in the Book of Ablution in a chapter about the Prophet (a.s) pouring water on someone who lost his consciousness.
3 Ibid., Vol. 6, p. 252 in the Book of Tufsir in a chapter about "... had you only heard him say it."


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of 'Uthman causing her to grieve? Or was it choking the grief which was never extracted? Such was a rift none ever expected. Women's schemes weaken mountains, and the Mother of the Faithful was only a woman. What got that pure and exonerated woman out of her chamber and Sunnah was the same spite that remains all the time."

The Myth of 'Abdullah ibn Saba'
The summary of this myth is: "A man named 'Abdullah ibn Saba', a Jew from Yemen, pretended to be a follower of Islam during the reign of' Uthman in order to cause mischief to the Muslims. He moved about the main Islamic metropolises in Egypt, Syria, Basra and Kufah, spreading the "glad tiding" that the Prophet (a.s) would return to life, that 'Ali (a.s) was his wasi (successor), and that 'Uthman was the usurper of the right of this wasi.Groups from among senior sahabah and rabi'an (followers of the Sahabah—the second generation of Muslims) such as 'Ammar ibn Yasir, Abu Tharr, Muhammed ibn al-Hanafiyyah and others. He was able to raise armies to kill caliph 'Uthman at his own house."

Thus does the series of events of this fabricated myth continue until it ends with the Battle of the Camel when 'Abdullah ibn Saba' orders his followers to sneak into the army of 'Ali (a.s) and of 'A'ishah without their knowledge in order to stir a war, and "thus did the Battle of the Camel take place." 1 Sayyid Murtada al­'Askari 2, who stood to expose the fallacy of this imagined myth, states that "The person who fabricated this personality ['Abdullah ibn Saba'] is Sayf ibn 'Amr al-Tamimi al-Barjami al-Küfi, who died in A.H. 170 (A.D. 786), and from him all other historians quoted it. Then this fabricated incident gained fame and spread in history books across the centuries and until our time, so much so that it has
1 'Allamah al-'Askari, Ahadith Umm al-Mu'minin,p. 272.
2 Besides him, a number of scholarly researchers, such as Taha Husain in Vol. 1 of his book titled Al-Fitna al-Kuhra (the great dissension) and Dr. Kamil al­Shaybi in his book titled Al-Silah Bayna al-Tashayyu' wal Tasawwuf (therelationship between Shi'ism and Sufism), have all rejected the notion that such an individual ever existed in reality.


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become one of the famous incidents the authenticity of which nobody doubts. The vast majority of writers and historians in the East as well as Orientalists have been blinded to the fact that this incident was the brainchild of one single narrator, a lone individual who acted on his own, and that this narrator, namely Sayf ibn 'Amr, is very well known by ancient scholars of hadith as a fabricator and is even accused of being an unbeliever. Ibn Dawud says the following about him: "He is nothing; he is a liar." Ibn 'Abd al-Barr says, "Sayf is rejected. We have cited his tradition only to inform you of it." Al-Nisa'i says this about him: "His traditions are weak. He is not trusted, and nobody has any faith in him." Yet this same lying narrator is quoted by al-Tabari, Ibn 'Asakir, Ibn Abb. Bakr, etc., and al-Tabari has been and is being quoted by all other writers and historians until our time. 1

It is well known that incidents narrated by one single person do not satisfy the scientific thinking, nor can they be used as evidence. How is it, then, when this same narrator is not trusted and was famous for being a liar and an unbeliever? Can his narrative be accepted? How can one accept to pass a judgment against a large segment of the Muslims by simply relying on incidents related by lone individuals who have been proven to be liars while there are ahadith that are consecutively reported [mutawatir] from the Messenger of Allah (a.s) which prove the opposite?

One of the greatest historical farces is to attribute Shi'ism to a mythical man, namely 'Abdullah ibn Saba', claiming he was the one who disseminated the concept of "'Ali (a.s) the wasi" despite the existence of a huge number of authentic texts proving that Shi'ism has always been to follow Muhammed (a.s) and nobody else. Refer to the Imamate texts on the previous pages to see where this 'Abdullah ibn Saba' fits. Is 'Abdullah ibn Saba' the one who said, "I am leaving among you that which, if you uphold them, you shall never stray: the Book of Allah and my 'itrah, my Ahl al-Bayt"? Or
1 Excerpted and edited from the book titled Abdullah ibn Saba' by 'Allamah Sayyid Murtada al-'Askari.


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is he the one who said, "Anyone who has accepted me as his master. 'Ali is his master"? Or is he the one who said that the Imams are twelve in number? What a ridiculous tale it is that says that a Jew has come from Yemen to hypocritically declare his acceptance of Islam then carries out all these extraordinary deeds which reach the limit of getting Muslim armies to battle each other without anyone discovering his true identity?! Is it reasonable to accept that Imam 'Ali (a.s), about whom the Messenger of Allah (a.s) said, "1 am the city of wisdom and 'Ali is its gate," fall a victim to the trickery of this Jew? Surely one who says so has strayed far, far aay from the right track.

The Battle of Siffin and the Rebellion of Mu'ãwiyah
Having achieved victory in the Battle of the Camel, the Imam (a.s) concentrated the effort of his army to eliminate the opposition led by Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan in Syria. Both armies stood face to face near the Euphrates. The Imam (a.s) tried to correct the situation through peaceful means, but the answer given by Mu'awiyah to the deputation sent to him by the Imam (a.s) was this: "Get away from me, for I have nothing for you except the sword." 1 Thus, both armies were engaged in battle. When signs of victory for the army led by the Imam (a.s) became clear, Mu'awiyah staged the "trick of the copies of the Qur'an". Mu'awiyah ordered his soldiers to raise the copies of the Qur'an on the tips of their lances and swords. Although the Imam (a.s) stood to expose this plot which was intended to put hurdles in the path of the victory which dawned quite near the army of Imam 'Ali (a.s), those fighters in his army who were demanding a ceasefire did not respond to his repeated calls, forcing him to accept arbitration. And the Imam (a.s) strongly protested the choice of Abu Musa al-Ash'ari as the representative of his army during the arbitration process due to this man's weakness and the feebleness of his views. Imam (a.s) had said, "I do not see that you should grant Abu Musa such an official task, for he is
1 Ibn al-Sabbagh al-Maliki, AI-Fusin al-Muh mmah, p. 83 (the Dar al-Adwit' edition).

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too weak to confront the trickery of 'Amr [ibn al-'As]." 1 'Ali (a.s) had already deposed Abu Musa al-Ash'ari from his post as the wali of Kufah.

There was a prior plan to raise the copies of the Qur'an and to coordinate it with a movement supportive of Mu'awiyah that had sneaked into the imam's army and which demanded the acceptance of the arbitration and the choice of Abu Musä al-Ash'ari [as the negotiator during the arbitration process]. The results of the arbitration, as the Imam (a.s) had expected, came in favor of Mu'awiyah. For the latter, the situation started to gradually stabilize in his own interest following this major rebellion and when the caliph of the Muslims was thus disobeyed, hoping he would earn a worldly pleasure of which he always dreamed.

In the past, I used to wonder about this incident in which more than ninety-thousand Muslims from both sides were killed. Whenever I asked [the Sunnis about it], the answer came as a cliche as follows: "It was merely a dissension between two great sahabis.Each of them followed his own Utihad. The one whose ijtihad was right earned two rewards, while the one whose ijtihad proved wrong earned one. Nobody ought to think about it. That was a nation that passed by; for it are the rewards of the good deeds which it earned, and for you are your own rewards." They have other such answers whereby they close any door that may uncover the causes of this "dissension", as they call it.

Thus does this issue remain according to Ahl al-Sunnah suspended like a mysterious riddle without a solution. This opened the door wide for Orientalist scholars to state their own views about our religion, so much so that some of them claimed that there is contradiction in Islam, pointing out to the tradition of the Messenger of Allah (a.s) wherein he said, "If two Muslims face each other with their swords in hand, both the killer and the killed shall be lodged in Hell." This tradition contradicts the claim of the
1 AI-Sibt ibn Tathkirot al-Khevels,p. 79.


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Sunnis that both parties during the Battle of Siffin were Muslim, and their commanders were great sahabis! So, why such insistence on refusing to distinguish between what is right and what is wrong? Why should the truth not be said? Is it really that ambiguous?

Anyhow, anyone who is confused about the truth regarding Mu'awiyah must carefully discern the following proofs, and let the reader issue his own judgment after that:

In his Sahih, Muslim cites the following statement of 'Ali (a.s):

"I swear by the One Who created the seed and initiated the breeze that the Ummi Prophet (a.s) pledged that nobody except a believer loves me, and nobody except a hypocrite hates me." 1

So, what would you say about one who raises armies to fight him (a.s)?! And what is the judgment of Ahl al-Sunnah regarding one who disobeys the Imam of the Muslims obedience to whom is obligatory?

In al-Bukhari's Sahih, there are references pointing to the oppression committed by Mu'awiyah. Abu Sa'id al-Khudri is quoted as having said, "We were once carrying the Mosque's blocks one by one while 'Ammar was carrying them two at a time. The Prophet (a.s) passed by him, rubbed the dust from his head and said,

'What a pity for 'Ammar! He shall be killed by the oppressive party; 'Ammar invites them to Allah while they invite him to the Fire." 2

This prediction of the Messenger of Allah (a.s) proved true when 'Ammar was martyred as he was fighting under the flag of Imam 'Ali (a.s) during the Battle of Siffin.

In Al-Mustadrak Sahihayn, relying on the authority of Khalid al-'Arabi, the author quotes the latter as having said, "I and Abu
1 Muslim, Sahih, in the Book of Iman in a chapter about love for 'Ali, may Allah glorify his countenance, as a sign of iman, Vol. 1, p. 262 (Dar al-Sha'b edition).
2 Al-Bukhari,Sahih, Vol. 4, p. 52 in the Book of Jihad in a chapter about removing one's dust seeking the Pleasure of Allah.


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Sa'id al-Khudri met Huthayfah [al-Yamani] and said, '0 Abu 'Abdulläh! Relate to us what you have heard the Messenger of Allah (a.s) say about the dissension.' Huthayfah said, 'The Messenger of Allah (a.s) said, 'Stick to the Book [of Allah, i.e. the Holy Qur'an] wherever it goes.' We said, 'If people differ with each other, with whom should we be?' He (a.s) said, 'Look up to the group wherein the son of Sumayyah [i.e. 'Ammar ibn Yasir] is and hold on to it, for he goes where the Book of Allah goes.' I heard the Messenger of Allah (a.s) say to 'Ammar, '0 son of al-Yaqzan! You shall not die until the oppressive group that lies in ambush kills you.'” 1

The oppression and rebellion of Mu'awiyah were all expected. Since he became the wall of Syria during the reign of 'Umar, wealth, authority and mansions which he had built for him followed, and he expanded such affluence during the reign of caliph 'Uthman. It was not easy for a man like him to give all this up. He knew for sure that if Imam 'Ali (a.s) did not remove him from office, he would at least strip him off all what he had acquired at the expense of the Muslims' bayt al-mal and that he would treat him on equal footing as he would any other Muslim. What went on between him and the highly revered ,sahabi, Abu Tharr al-Ghifari, during the caliphate of 'Uthman also proves what we have stated, that is, he was running after the wares of the life in this world and his squandering of the State's public funds. The objection of Abu Tharr to Mu'awiyah's conduct resulted in caliph 'Uthman banishing him to al-Rabathah after having him brought to him in Medinah. Zayd ibn Wahab is quoted as having said, "I passed by Abu Tharr in al­Rabathah and asked him, 'What brought you to this [desolate] land?' He said, 'We were in Syria. The verse saying 'And there are those who hoard up gold and silver and do not spend in God's way: Announce a most grievous penalty to them' (Qur'an, 9:34) was revealed. Mu'awiyah said that it was not revealed about the Muslims but rather about the People of the Book. I said that it was
1 Al-Mustadrak Sahihayn, Vol. 2, p. 148 (Dar al-Kitab al-'Arabi edition).


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about us and about them as well.'" 1

Thus was Abu Tharr punished with banishment despite the testimony of the Messenger of Allah (a.s) for him that he was truthful. The Prophet (a.s) said,

"No tree has shaded nor the desert has seen a man more truthful than Abu Tharr" 2

This incident makes it clear how Mu'awiyah tampered with the meaning of the Qur'an in order to cover his squandering of the nation's funds—the funds with which he had no right to deal according to his own personal desires. The problem is that al­Bukhari has stated in his sahih what "qualifies" Mu'awiyah to be a , faciik (well-versed in religious affairs)! Abu Malikah has said, "Mu'awiyah prayed one single rak'ah (unit of prayer) for the witr (single) prayers after the evening prayers, and a slave of Ibn 'Abbas was in his company. Ibn 'Abbas came and said [to his slave], 'Leave him, for he was a companion of the Messenger of Allah'!" 3 In another version in the narration of this same incident, he [Ibn 'Abbas] said that Mu'awiyah was a "faqih"! 4 If you come to know that Mu'awiyah spent twenty years as "caliph" of the Muslims, and before that he was wadi [provincial governor] over Syria, the reader may imagine the extent to which Mu'awiyah exercised his own influence on the fabrication and transmission of ahadith attributed to the Prophet (a.s) in order to justify his actions. Despite all the efforts which he exerted to cover them up, they have become quite clear in the books of hadith and history in a way which leaves no room for confusion in getting to know the truth about this "caliph" whom they [Sunnis] also regard as the "commander of the faithful"! The conduct of Mu'awiyah with regard to his government and
1 Al-Bukhari,Sahih, Vol. 6, p. 146 in the Book of Tafsir in a chapter about this verse.
2 Al-Tirinidhi, Sahih, Vol. 13, p. 210 in a chapter about the merits of Abu Tharr.
3 Al-Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 5, p. 73 in a book about the merits of the sahabah in a chapter about Mu'awiyah.
4 Ibid., Vol. 5, p. 74 in a book about the merits of the sandbah in a chapter about Mu' awiyah.


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authority has its own roots in his Sufyani family. His father [Abu Sufyan] said to "Millman after the latter had received the oath of allegiance, "Receive it as a ball is received, for by the one by whom Abu Sufyan swears, I remain optimistic that you [Umayyahs], too, will receive it, and it shall be received by your children by way of inheritance," 1 thus pointing out to the true reason why this family pretended to have accepted Islam following the conquest of Mecca and when all Meccans embraced Islam. Look into the following incident to realize what sort of Islam they quite reluctantly embraced:

'Abdullah ibn 'Abbas has said, "Abu Sufyan said, 'By Allah! I remained in humiliation, feeling sure that his [Prophet's] call would gain the upper hand until Allah caused Islam to enter my heart against my wish." 2 If Abu Sufyan's tongue thus admits, imagine what his heart would say had it been enabled to speak about what it contains!

What the Prophet (a.s) Said about Mu'awiyah
The following is stated by Muslim in his "The Prophet (a.s) one day sent him [Mu'awiyah] to Ibn 'Abbas inviting him to come to write something for him. Ibn 'Abbas found him eating. The Prophet (a.s) sent him [Ibn 'Abbas] again to Mu'awiyah, and Ibn 'Abbas again found him eating. This took place a third time. The Prophet (a.s) said,

'May Allah never cause his [Mu' awiyah's] stomach to feel satisfied.'" 3

Also in Muslim's Sahih is the following text: "The Messenger of Allah (a.s) said,

'... As for Mu awiyali, he is a penniless and spiritless
1 Al-Tabari, Tarikh.
2 Al-Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 4, p. 122 in the Book of Jihad.
3 Muslim, Sahih, Vol. 5, p. 462 in the Book of Kindness, Charity and Etiquette in a chapter about one cursed by the Prophet (a.s) (Dar al-Sha'b edition) as cited in al-Nawawi'sSharh.


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person." 1

In Ahmed's Musnad, the Messenger of Allah (a.s) is quoted as having said the following about Mu'awiyah and 'Amr ibn al-'As: "0 Lord! Hurl them into dissension headlong, and lodge them into Hell," in addition to many other narratives exposing the truth about that "commander of the faithful" Mu'awiyah, son of the liver-eater, 2 who sealed his deeds in the life of this world by installing his son, the drunkard and the debauchee Yazid, as "caliph" over the Muslims after him. Yazid was then no more than twenty years old. Thus, Mu'awiyah violated the reconciliation treaty which he had signed with Imam al-Hasan (a.s), actually going against the Commandments of Allah (a.s) and of His Messenger (a.s) as well as violating the "sunnah" of both Sheikhs [Abu Bakr and 'Umar] and all .other traditions discussed by the "Ahl al-Sunnah".

Martyrdom of Imam (a.s)
The last battle waged by Imam (a.s) was that of al-Nahrawan. He fought in it the group which forced him to accept the arbitration in Siffin but then regretted it a few days later, reneging from its covenant and violating the oath of allegiance to the imam. Later on, these were called the "Khawaraj" [or Kharijites] or the "Mariqun". He (a.s) scored a victory over them and was getting ready to fight the rebels in Syria following the failure of the arbitration talks, but the Imam (a.s) was martyred at the hands of a member of the Khawarij named 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Muljim who stabbed the Imam (a.s) as he was prostrating during his fair prayer at the Grand Kilfah Mosque in the morning of the 19th of the month of Ramadan, 40 A.H. (January 26, 661 A.D.), five years after having taken charge. The Imam (a.s) remained suffering from the attack for three
1 Al-Bukhari, Sa1,111, Vol. 3, p. 693 in the Book of Divorce in a chapter about a woman whose divorce is irrevocable not having the right for any financial support after the divorce (Dar al-Sha'b edition).
2 The liver-eater is Hind, Mu'awiyah's mother who tried to chew the liver of the Master of the Martyrs, Hamzah ibn 'Abd al-Muttalib, the Prophet's uncle, after he had been martyred during the Battle of Uhud.


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days during which he handed over the Imamate to his son al-Hasan (a.s), older grandson of the Prophet (a.s), so that he might carry out after his own demise the duties in leading the nation. .

This assignment of the caliphate was not based on the mere fact that al-Hasan (a.s) was a son of 'Ali (a.s) or on his being the most fit for it, in his own personal view, to be the caliph. Rather, it was done in obedience to the Command of Allah Almighty Who chose the twelve successors of His Messenger (a.s), as we have already stated, with Imam al-Ijasan (a.s) being the second on the list.

After the martyrdom of Imam 'Ali (a.s), Imam al-Hasan (a.s) ascended the pulpit and the people of Kufah swore the oath o f allegiance to him as the successor of the Prophet (a.s) and the Imam of the nation. But this did not last for more than six months.

When the news reached Syria that Imam 'Ali (a.s) had been martyred, Mu'awiyah led a large army towards Kufah in order to personally take charge of the leadership of the Muslims and to force Imam al-Hasan (a.s) son of Imam 'Ali (a.s) to surrender to him. Imam al-Hasan (a.s) found no alternative to reconciling and signing a treaty with Mu'awiyah.

As regarding the reasons which forced him to sign such a reconciliation agreement, these were: the disintegration of his army, the internal and unstable domestic situation in Iraq, and the Roman Empire which was looking for an opportunity to attack Islam, having stood ready with a huge army to fight the Muslims. Had a war been waged between Mu'awiyah and Imam al-Hasan (a.s) under such circumstances, the winner would have been the Roman Empire, neither Imam al-Hasan (a.s) nor Mu'awiyah. Thus, Imam al-Hasan (a.s), having opted for peace, removed a very serious danger against Islam. As for the terms of the Reconciliation Treaty, these were:

1. Al-Hasan (a.s) was to hand over the government and the


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management of affairs to Muawiyah provided that the latter should adhere to the Qur'an and to the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah (a.s).

2. Caliphate after the death of Mu'awiyah should be a right specifically belonging to Imam al-Hasan (a.s). If something happened to him, caliphate would then go to his brother, Imam al-Husain (a.s).

3. All condemnations and insults against Imam 'Ali (a.s) should be prohibited, be they launched from the pulpit or from anywhere else.

4. Five million dirhams, which were then present at bayt al-mal in Kufah, would be put under the supervision of Imam al-Hasan (a.s) and Mu'awiyah was to send one million dirhams a year from the khiraj tax to Imam al-Hasan (a.s) for distribution to the families of those who were martyred in the battles of the Camel and of 5iffin on the side of Imam 'Ali (a.s).

5. Mu'awiyah was to pledge that he would leave all people, regardless of their race or ethnic origin, and not chase or harm them, and he should also pledge to carry out the terms of this Agreement with precision and make the public his witnesses.

But imam al-Hasan (a.s) was martyred in 50 A.H. (670 A.D.) as a result of his wife, Judah daughter of al-Ash'ath ibn Qays, having laced something which she had given him with poison. This wife belonged to a family which followed a course of living and believing contrary to that of the descendants of Imam 'Ali (a.s). Mu'awiyah had instigated her to commit this terrible crime by sending her one hundred thousand dirhams and by promising her to marry her off to his son, Yazid, if she poisoned her husband, Imam al-Hasan (a.s). Mu'awiyah was elated when he heard about the martyrdom of Imam al-Hasan (a.s). He saw in it the removal of the greatest hurdle in his way to achieve his objectives, thus firming the foundations of the Umayyad dynasty's rule. Thus, Mu'awiyah achieved all of that thereafter and was able to install his pornographic teenage son, Yazid, over the nation by force. So,


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where does this fit in the Sunnis' belief that caliphate must take place through consultation? Did they not reject the texts which mandate the caliphate of the Imams from among the Ahl al-Bayt (a.s) in the pretext that such Imamate must be through consultation? Does this not prove that caliphate, according to their view, is not legitimate if not done through consultation? But why did they consider the "caliphate" of Yazid as legitimate?! And how did they agree to call him "commander of the faithful"?!

Consider the following so you may view some black pages of our Islamic history. Consider a narrative of glittering glimpses of the life of "commander of the faithful Yazid son of Abu Sufyan"!

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