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Jamrah of the Tenth of Dhu al‑Hijjah

Jamrah of the Tenth of Dhu al‑Hijjah

The legal schools agree that it suffices to perform the ramyof the Jamrat al‑`Aqabah any time from sunrise until sunset on the tenth of Dhu al‑Hijjah, but disagree as to its performance before or after that period. According to the Maliki, the Hanafi, the Hanbali and the Imami schools, it is not permissible to perform the ramyof the Jamrat al‑`Aqabah before the daybreak, and if performed without an excuse, must be repeated. They permit it for an excuse like sickness, weakness, or insecurity (fear). According to the Shafi'i school, performing the rite earlier is unobjectionable, for the specified period is mustahabb not wajib (al‑Tadhkirah, Ibn Rushd's Bidayah). However, if delayed until after sunset on the day of `Id, according to Malik, the defaulter must make a sacrifice if he performs the rite during the night or the next day. According to the Shafi`is, there is nothing upon him if he performs the rite of ramyin the night or the next day. (Ibn Rushd's Bidayah)

According to the Imamiyyah, the time of this ramyextends from sunrise until sunset on that day. If forgotten, the rite must be performed the next day. If again forgotten, on the 12th, and if one fails again, it can be performed on the 13th. But if one forgets until one has left Makkah, he may carry it out the following year, either himself or through a deputy who carries it out on his behalf. [9]

The Conditions ofRamy

There are certain conditions for the validity of ramy al jamarat:

1. Niyyah: stated by the Imamiyyah explicitly.

2. That each ramymust be carried out with seven pebbles; there is agreement on this point.

3. The pebbles must be thrown one at a time, not more; again there is consensus on this point.

4. The pebbles must strike the known target; there is also consensus on this point.

5. The pebbles must reach their target through being thrown (ramy); thus if they are tossed in some other manner, it does not suffice according to the Imami and the Shafi'i schools, and is not permissible according to the Hanbali and the Hanafi schools. (al‑Mughni)

6. The pebbles must be of stone, not of other material, like salt, iron, copper, wood or porcelain, etc.; this is accepted unanimously by all the schools except that of Abu Hanifah, who says that it is all right if pebbles are made of some earthen material, such as porcelain, clay or stone. (al‑Mughni)

7. The pebbles must be `new', that is, not used for rainy before; the Hanbalis state this condition expressly.

Taharah isnot a condition in ramy, though desirable.

The Imamiyyah say that it is mustahabb that the pebbles be about the size of a finger tip and rough, neither black, nor white, nor red. The other schools say that their size must be about that of the seed of a broad bean (baqila').

The Imamiyyah also say that it is mustahabb for the Hajj pilgrim to perform all the rites facing the Qiblah, with the exception of the ramyof the Jamrat al‑`Aqabah on the day of `Id, which is mustahabb to perform with one's back towards the Qiblah, since the Prophet (s) had performed this rite in that way. The other schools say that facing the Qiblah is mustahabb even in this rite.

Also, it is mustahabb to perform the ramyon foot (though riding a mount is permissible), not to be farther from the Jamrah than 10 cubits, to perform it with the right hand, to recite the prayers prescribed by tradition and other prayers. Following is one of the prayers prescribed by tradition:

الّلهم اجعله حجا مبرورا، وذنبا مغفورا .. اللّهم انّ هذه حصیاتی، فاحصهنّ لی، وارفعهنّ فی عملی .. الله اکبر. اللهم ادحر الشّیطان عنّی.

O God, make my Hajj a blessing, a forgiving of my sins .... O God, these  pebbles of mine, reckon them and place them high in my actions .... God is Great. O God, repel Satan from me.


What if one doubts whether the pebble thrown has struck its target or not? It is assumed not to have hit. If one doubts the number thrown, he may count from the least number of which he is sure he has thrown.

Jamrat al‑`Aqabah is the first rite performed by the Hajj pilgrim in Mina on the day of `Id, which is followed by the dhabh, then halq or taqsir. After that he proceds to Makkah for tawafthe same day.

On this day, there is no other rite of ramyfor him. Now we shall proceed to discuss the sacrifice (hady).

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